wtorek, 28 lutego 2012


Wpisany przez KS. ANDRZEJ SIEMIENIEWSKI czwartek, 21 października 2004 21:48

ze strony http://www.apologetyka.katolik.pl/dyskusje-z-chrzescijanskimi-pogladami/protestantyzm/78/243-1-ewangelikalizm-jako-kierunek-duchowoci

[1] Por. Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol.I, red. H.F. Campenhausen i in., Tübingen 1957, s.378 i 382.
[2] Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, red.J. Höfer, K. Rahner, vol.III, Freiburg 1986, s.1237 i vol.VI s.1161.
[3]Por. P. Beyerhans, Evangelikale Bewegung.
[4] Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, vol.I, Paris 1937, s.665.
[5] Tamże, s.666.
[6] Historia ewangelikalizmu i teologiczna treść tego pojęcia opisana jest na przykład w:
R.B. Fowler, A new engagement – evangelical practical thought 1966–1976, Grand Rapids 1982;
Carl F.H. Henry, Evangelicals in Search for Identity, Waco 1976;
R.G. Hutcheson, Mainline churches and the evangelicals: a challenging crisis?, Atlanta 1981;
M.A. Inch, The Evangelical Challange, Philadelphia 1978;
K.S. Kantzer, Evangelical Roots, Nashville/New York 1978;
J.C. King, The Evangelicals, London 1969;
G.W. Kirby, Evangelism Alert. A Strategy for the seventies, London 1972;
M.E. Marty, Righteous Empire. The Protestant Experience in America, New York 1970;
W.G. McLoughlin, (red.) The American Evangelicals, 1800–1900. An Anthology, New York 1968;
C.R. Padilla, The new face of Evangelicalism: An International Symposium on the Losanna Covenant, Downers Grove 1976;
J. Stott, (red.) Evangelical Anglicans and the ARCIC Final Report: an assessment and critique, Bramcote Grove 1982;
R.E. Webber, Common Roots. A call to Evangelical maturity, Grand Rapids (Mi) 1978;
R.E. Webber, The Orthodox Evangelicals: Who they are and what they are saying, Nashville/New York 1978;
D.F. Wells, The evangelicals: What they believe, Who they are, Where they are changing, Grand Rapids 1977;
S.E. Wirt, The social conscience of the Evangelicals, London 1968;
I.I. Zaretsky, M.P. Leone, (red.) Religious movements in contemporary America, Princeton (N.J) 1977.
M.A. Urdank, Evangelicalism in modern England, „Journal of British Studies” 30(1991), s.333–344.
[7]Por. K. Enns–Rempel, Interpretations of evangelicalism: an annotated bibliography, „Direction” 20(1991), s.67–71.
[8] „North American expression of theological conservative Protestantism. Encompasses a wide variety: from Pietism, Baptism to Anabaptist tradition. Includes Fundamentalism”, J.D. Hunter, Evangelicalism – the coming generation, Chicago 1987, s.3–4.
[9]Por. M. Burkart, Evangelikale, w: Erste Auskunft – Sekten, ed. P.K. Funke, Leipzig 1994, s.56–58.
[10]Por. Geschichte des Pietismus, t.I: Der Pietismus vom 17. bis zum frühen 18. Jahrhundert, hrsg. M. Brecht, Münster 1993. Planowany tom trzeci, Der Pietismus des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, ma zawierać rozdziały Evangelikalismus und Heiligungsbewegung im 19. Jahrhundert oraz Evangelikalismus und Fundamentalismus in Nordamerika.
[11] „fresh discovery of the presence and power of Jesus”, „the inward, passionate and zealous personal commitment”, „the experience of being born again”. J. Barr, Fundamentalism, London 1977, p.32–33; por. też R.E. Webber, Common Roots, p.33; H. Davis, The English Free Churches, London 1963, s.159 i 199; D. Brown, Understanding Pietism, Grand Rapids (Mi) 1978, s.164; R.G. Torbet, A History of the Baptists, Valley Forge, 1963, s.25; etc.
[12] „The term evangelicalism usually refers to a largely Protestant movement that emphasizes:
(1) the Bible as authoritative and reliable;
(2) eternal salvation as possible only by regeneration (being «born again») involving personal trust in Christ and in His atoning work;
(3) spiritually transformed life marked by moral conduct, personal devotion such as Bible reading and prayer, and zeal for evangelism and missions.” G.M. Marsden: Evangelical and fundamental Christianity, s.190, w: The Encyclopedia of religion(16 vols), ed. M. Eliade, vol.5, New York 1987.
[13]Por. tamże.
[14] „Evangelicalism – the movement in modern Christianity, transcending denominational and confessional boundaries that emphasizes conformity to the basic tenets of faith and a missionary outreach of compassion and urgency (…) a person who identifies with it is an «evangelical».” R.V. Pierard, Evangelicalism, w: Evangelical dictionary of Theology, ed. W.A. Elwell, Grand Rapids (Mi) 1984, s.379.
[15]Por. tamże, s.380.
[16]Por. np. J. Stalker, Evangelicalism, s. 602–607, w: Encyclopedia of religion and ethics, red. J. Hastings, New York – Edinburgh 1955, gdzie główne akcenty wyznaczające ewangelikalizm to: dzieło Ducha Świętego w duchu człowieka, ewangelizacja, osobiste świadectwo wiary i wspólnotowe działanie, szczególnie charytatywne.
R. K. Master, Evangelicalism, s.647–650, w: New Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. The Catholic University of America, Washington 1967, podaje następjące składniki definiujące ewangelikalizm:
(1) salvation by faith, the atoning death of Christ, denies efficacy of good works and sacraments
(2) authority and inspiration of the Bible
(3) depravity of men
(4) sacraments: rather symbols than means of grace
(5) ordination does not confer any sacramental powers
(6) reading of the Scripture and preaching
[17]Np. artykuł redakcyjny (Editorial) Towards an Evangelical spirituality, „Evangelical Review of Theology” 2(1992), s.115–117, koncentrujący się na aspektach: personalnym (personal knowledge of God), eklezjalnym (fellowship), misyjnym (in the world – not of the world) oraz na źródłach pobożności (priority of the Bible).
[18]„Evangelicalism refers in this book to the clearly distinguishable family of Christian traditions which emerged following the evangelical Revival in the eighteenth century. The movement was closer identified (…) with the brothers John and Charles Wesley (…) and George Whitefield (…) evangelicals are Bible people and gospel people.” D.K. Gillett, Trust and Obey – Explorations in evangelical spirituality, London 1993, s.7.
[19]„Experience of conversion in response to the divine grace, the centrality of the cross, the primary authority of the Bible and the imperative to service for Christ's sake are hallmarks of the Evangelical spiritual tradition”. J.M. Gordon, Evangelical Spirituality, London 1991, s.329.
[20]J. Packer, The Evangelical Anglican Identity Problem, Oxford 1978, s.20n.
[21]D. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain, London 1989, s.5n, oraz: tenże, Evangelicalism in Modern Scotland, „Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology” 1(1991), s.4–12.
[22]The Fundamentalist Phenomenon – the resurgence of conservative Christianity, ed. J.Falwell, Ed Dobson, Ed Hindson, New York 1981, s.135.
[23]R.E. Webber, Common roots, s.26.
[24]„The Evangelical tradition is (…) largely unexplored”, J.M. Gordon, Evangelical Spirituality, s.VII.
[25]Por. Y. Congar, Fifty years of Catholic Theology – Conversations with Yves Congar, ed. B. Lauret, London 1988 (tłum. z fr. Entretien d'automne, Paris 1987), p.31.
[26]Por. B.C. Lane, The spirituality of the evangelical revival, „Theology Today” 43(1986) n2, s.169–177; D. Parker, Evangelical spirituality Reviewed, „Evangelical Review of Theology” 2(1992), s.152–166, gdzie wyróżniające punkty duchowości ewangelikalnej (conversion, holiness, service) przeciwstawione są ujęciu katolickiemu w tym, że nie są pośredniczone przez Kościół, liturgię bądź sakrament (s.159).
[27]W teologii ewangelikalnej można spotkać się z przypisywaniem miana „ewangelikalisty” praktycznie każdemu: por. np. D.L. Akin, Bernard of Clairvaux: evangelical of the 12th century, „Criswell Theological Review” 4(1990), s.327–350.
[28]R.E. Webber, Common roots, s.15–17.
[29]Tamże, p.17.
[30]Por. D. Parker, Evangelical spirituality reviewed, „Evangelical Quarterly” 63(1991), s.123–148.
[31]Por. n.p. V. Synan, The Holiness–Pentecostal Movement in the United States, Grand Rapids (Mi) 1971, s.13: „John Wesley, the indomitable founder of Methodism, was also the spiritual and intellectual father of the modern Holiness and Pentecostal movements which have issued from Methodism within the last century”.
[32]Terminu „fundamentalizm” w sensie troski o zachowanie protestanckiej ortodokscji biblijnej nie należy mylić z rozpowszechnionym obecnie politycznym (teokratycznym) rozumieniem tego terminu.
[33]Por. Introduction W.G. McLoughlina do antologii: The American Evangelicals 1800–1900 s.24: „Those evangelicals who (…) found themselves classed among the Old Lights of America's Third Great Awakening in the 20th century accepted the name Fundamentalists”.
[34]M.E. Marthy, Righteous Empire. s.61: during „the new stirrings that were later to become «the second Great Awakening» (…) Baptist and Methodist revivalists often stimulated high emotionalism and welcomed physical signs of response.” W: Brown, Understanding Pietism, znajdujemy sugestię wyjaśniającą powyższe: „Edwardianism as the impregnation of Calvinism with Pietism”.
[35]„The evangelical succession of believers”. R.N. Flew, Methodism and the Catholic Tradition, w: Northern Catholicism: Centenary Studies in the Oxford and Parallel Movements, ed. N.P. Williams and C. Harris, London 1933, s.526.
[36]„it was the Herrnhut (Pietist) devotion that changed Wesley's life”; „evangelicalism within the (Anglican) Church is unthinkable without Wesley”. D. Voll, Catholic Evangelicalism, London 1963, s.14–16. (tłum. z niem. Hochkirchlicher Pietismus, München 1960).
[37]Tamże, s.121 i s.114.
[38]Por. Brown, Understanding Pietism, s.17–19; por. też H. Davis, The English Free Churches, s.31–34; M. Piette, John Wesley, s.27.
[39]„the tractates of (…) the Anabaptists are filled with allusions to Theologia (germanica)”, B. Hoffman, Introduction do Theologia Germanica, New York 1980, s.25. Hoffman mówi również w tym samym miejscu o żywym zainteresowaniu średniowiecznym traktatem takich teologów anabaptyzmu jak Denck, Hetzer i Schwenckfeldt, jako przykład jego wpływu na anabaptyzm i na późniejszą orientację pietystyczną.
[40]H. Davis, The English Free Churches, s.31–34.
[41]N.p. The Baptist Heritage, E.B. Cole, Elgin (Ill.) 1976, s.17.
[42]Por. D.W. Dayton i R.K. Johnston (red.), The variety of American evangelicalism, Knoxville (Tenn) 1991.
[43]Por. W.R. Ward, The Protestant Evangelical Awakening, Cambridge 1992.
[44]J. Weborg, Pietism: The fire of God which flames in the heart of Germany, w: F.C. Senn, Protestant spiritual traditions, s.200–201.
[45]A.H. Francke, Autobiography, w: P.C. Erb (red.), Pietists – selected writings, New York 1983, s.106.
[46]„(…) we could label Moody «the first fundamentalist»„, W. G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings and Reform,Chicago 1978, s. 143.
[47]J. Barr, Fundamentalism, London 1977, s. 2, oraz 261 i 269.
[48]The Fundamentalist Phenomenon – the resurgence of Conservative Christianity, ed. Jerry Falwell, Ed Dobson, Ed Hindson, New York 1981, s.3.
[49]Tamże, s.97.
[50]E.W. Gritsch, Born Againism, Philadelphia 1982, s.39.
[51]Por. Fundamentalism, s.947, w: Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, vol.2, s.947–948
[52]Por. tamże.
[53]J. Barr, Fundamentalism, s.14.
[54]Tamże, s. 17.
[55]The Fundamentalist Phenomenon, s.23–24.
[56]Por. tamże, s.76–82.
[57]Por. np. Bruns, Preacher – Billy Sunday and Big–Time American evangelism, New York/London 1992, s.279n.
[58]Por. Fundamentalism, s.953.
[59]Por. The Fundamentalist Phenomenon, s.13–19.
[60]Por. Fundamentalism, s.954–959.
[61]R. Quebedeaux, Conservative and charismatic developments of the later Twentieth Century, s. 963, in: Encyclopedia of the American Religious experience, ed. Ch.H. Lippy & P.W. Williams, vol.2, New York 1988, s.963–976.
[62]„(1) instant, historically identifiable moment of conversion, (2) absolute authority of the Bible alone; (3) efficacy of propositional doctrine: the Bible teaches clear, logical, defensible doctrines”, tamże.
[63]Por. W.G. McLoughlin, Is there a third force in Christendom? w: Religion in America, ed. W.G. McLoughlin & R.N. Bellah, Boston 1968, s.45–72.
[64]G. Gallup Jr, J. Castelli, The people's religion – American Faith in the 90s, New York 1989, s.93.
[65]Por. G.M. Marsden, Evangelical and fundamental Christianity, s.195; tenże, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids 1991 (jest to podstawowe wprowadzenie w świat fundamentalizmu i ewangelikalizmu amerykańskiego).
[66]Por. R.V. Pierard, Evangelicalism, s.379–382.
[67]Por. na przykład skład osobowy konferencji na temat tożsamości ewangelikalnej (Evangelical Affirmations) zorganizowanej przez National Association of Evangelicals oraz przez Trinity Evangelical Divinity School w maju 1989, roku podany w: Evangelical Affirmations, ed. K.S. Kantzer i Carl F.H. Henry, Grand Rapids (Mi) 1990, s.527.
[68]J. Ockenga, From Fundamentalism, through New Evangelicalism, to Evangelicalism, w: Evangelical Roots, ed. K. Kantzer, Nashville 1978, s.44.
[70]Por. R. Quebedeaux, Conservative and charismatic developments of the later twentieth century, s. 972, w: Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, ed. Ch.H. Lippy & P.W. Williams, New York 1988, vol.II, s.963–976.
[71]Ch.E. Shepard, Forgiven – the rise and fall of Jim Bakker and the P.T.L. Ministry”, New York 1989, s. 423–427; 550.
[72]R. Quebedeaux, The Wordly Evangelicals, New York 1978.
[73]Por.: „Theologically, charismatic renewal was close to Neoevangelicalism and included many Neoevangelicals within its ranks (…) unlike Neoevangelicals it did non insist on doctrinal agreement as the precondition for Christian unity (…) Spirit Baptism made it possible once again for even sophisticated theologians to have a direct experience of God”, Richard Quebedeaux, Conservative, s.968.
[74]„Revivalism, not to be confused with revival, is a distinctively American phenomenon, dating from the mid–eighteenth century and relating to one or a series of services, often highly emotional, designed to stimulate renewed interest in religion. Intended for persons formerly identified with but now apathetic to religious life and organization, or to awaken in those indifferent or even hostile toward religion a sensitivity and commitment to a particular religious form or community. In America (…) (it is) largely a Protestant phenomenon”. S.C. Henry, Revivalism, s.799, w: Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, ed. C.H. Lippy & P.W. Williams, vol.2, New York 1988.
[75]Por. próbę delimitacji „Wielkiego Przebudzenia” (pierwszego) – S.A. Marini, The Great Awakening, s.775, w: Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience, s.775–798.
[76]Por. np. W.G. McLoughlin, Timepieces and butterflies: a note on the Great–Awakening–construct and its critics, „Sociological Analysis” 44(1983), s.103–110. Autor traktuje religię jako środek terapeutyczny w obliczu stresu psycho–społecznego.
[77]„Revivalism is the Protestant ritual (at first spontaneous, but, since 1830, routinized) in which charismatic evangelists convey «the Word» of God to large masses of people who, under this influence, experience what Protestants call conversion, salvation, regeneration, or spiritual rebirth”. W.G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform, s.xiii.
[78] „Awakenings (…) are periods of cultural revitalization that begin in a general crisis of beliefs and values and extend over a period of a generation or so, during which time a profound reorientation in beliefs and values takes place”, tamże.
[79]„Revivals alter the lives of individuals; awakenings alter the world view of a whole people or culture”, tamże.
[80]G. Tavard, Le Protestantisme, Paris 1958, szcz. rozdział Les Réveils, s. 55–63.
[81]Por. F. Frost, Réveils – Revivals, w: Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, vol.XIII, Paris 1988, kol.438.
[82]Np. J.P. Dolan, Catholic Revivalism: The American Experience, 1830–1900, Notre–Dame 1978.
[83]Por. F. Frost, Réveils, kol. 437–440.
[84]Por. C.C. Goen, Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740–1800, New Haven and London 1962, s.40–44.
[85]Por. U. Gastaldi, I movimenti, s.5.
[86]Por. np. schemat książki: W.G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform.
[87]Np. L. Giussani, Grandi linee della teologia protestante americana, Milano 1988, s.25–26; oraz: W.G. McLoughlin, Modern Revivalism. Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham, New York 1959.
[88]Por. W.G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform, s.179–216.
[89]Por. U. Gastaldi, I movimenti, passim
[90]„The Nativist Phase of the Awakening”, W.G. McLoughlin, Revivals, s.185. Autor zwraca też uwagę na wspólne doświadczenie przebudzenia przeżywane przez protestantów, katolików i żydów amerykańskich w ostatnich dziesięcioleciach.
[91]„Revivalism between awakenings”; „great prayer meeting revival of 1857–58”; „great urban revival campaigns of Dwight L. Moody”, W. G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform, s. 141.
[92]F. Frost, Réveils – Revivals, kol. 446–447.
[93]U. Gastaldi, I movimenti di risveglio, s. 63n.
[94]„(…) institutionalized religion is unable to sustain, even among the faithful, a sense of regular comunion with God in formal church rites, the distance between Creator and created becomes intolerably great (…) God's spirit, sensing man's need, makes itself known to man in new ways” W.G. McLoughlin, Revivals, s.20.
[95]„Nelle chiese non ci sia vita, ma ristagno e torpore (…) la predicazione si sia allontanata dai grandi temi della Bibbia”. U. Gastaldi, I movimenti, s.6.
[96]„Il nuovo orientamento del discorso teologico assumerŕ normalmente il fatto sperimentale della conversione come catalizzatore di tutta la sua problematica e come centro del suo sistema di soluzione, – esaltando il criterio paradigmatico dell'esperienza diretta nelle visioni pietistiche, o dei risultati pratici nelle concezioni piů moralistiche, o dell'efficienza sociale nei sistemi piů laicizzati”. L. Giussani, Grandi linee, s.26.
[97]Por. R.C. Gordon–McCutchan, The irony of evangelical history, „Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion” 20(1981), s.309–326.
[98]„I termini di equivalente significato come Awakening o Revival in Inghilterra e USA, Erweckung in Germania, Réveil in Svizzera, Francia e Olanda.” U. Gastaldi. I movimenti di risveglio nel mondo protestante, (dal „Great Awakening” 1720 ai „revivals” del nostro secolo), Torino 1989, s.5.
[99]U. Gastaldi, I movimenti, s.169.
[100]„Si predica il vangelo come se fosse predicato per la prima volta”, tamże, s. 169.
[101]„the basic reality for an Evangelical Christian is the fact that he has been born again in water and the Holy Spirit, he has experienced Christ”, za: R.E. Webber, Common roots. s.19.
[102]„early evangelicalism shaped by the First and Second Great Awakenings, with their accent on revivalism and personal conversion (…) in that revolution in Christendom which the English Puritans movement intended to accomplish”, R.E. Webber, Common roots, s.15.
[103]Por. V. Synan, The Holiness–Pentecostal movement, s.75.